Last updated: February 7, 2022 - Originally published: March 2, 2021
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The Ask a Librarian team is committed to curating free evidence-based resources related to the current COVID-19 pandemic. We continue to update the Ask a Librarian: COVID-19 post and Ask a Librarian: Post-COVID-19 condition (long COVID) post with current clinical summaries, article collections, guidance and more.
Here we focus on information sources specific to COVID-19 vaccines and the immunization roll-out.
- Clinical summaries *
- Clinical information hubs and toolkits *
- Evidence reviews *
- Articles and article collections *
- Vaccine trials, monographs and tracking *
- Guidelines and other information *
- Ethics and medical-legal resources
- Webinars and podcasts *
- Patient information *
- Pre-populated literature searches
Recent selected updates
25 Jan 2022: 2-dose vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) associated with greater reduction in transmission of Delta (B.1.617.2) variant compared to 2-dose vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) (N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 5 early online) View in topic
25 Jan 2022: 3 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) vaccine associated with reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to 2 doses in healthcare workers with immunocompetence (JAMA 2022 Jan 10 early online) View in topic
25 Jan 2022: effectiveness of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine decreased from 2 months after first dose to 7 months after first dose by about 4% to prevent death, 3% to prevent hospitalization, and 16% to prevent asymptomatic or symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in North Carolina, United States during December 2020 to September 2021 (N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 12 early online) View in topic
25 Jan 2022: effectiveness of 2 doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine decreased from 2 months after first dose to 7 months after first dose by about 8% to prevent death, 7% to prevent hospitalization, and 28% to prevent asymptomatic or symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in North Carolina, United States during December 2020 to September 2021 (N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 12 early online) View in topic
25 Jan 2022: effectiveness of 2 doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine against Delta variant decreased from 2-9 weeks after second dose to ≥ 20 weeks after second dose by about 6% to prevent death, 7% to prevent hospitalization, and 24% to prevent COVID-19 in United Kingdom (N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 12 early online) View in topic
25 Jan 2022: previous 2-dose vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with 68% reduction in transmission of Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant and 50% reduction in transmission of Delta (B.1.617.2) variant (N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 5 early online) View in topic
18 Jan 2022: effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 decreased about 20% from May to August 2021 in New York, United States, during period of increase in B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant prevalence, but effectiveness against COVID-19 hospitalization appears to have remained mostly stable (N Engl J Med 2022 Jan 13) View in topic
18 Jan 2022: increasing time since second dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine associated with increasing rates of severe COVID-19 regardless of dominance of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant (Lancet 2022 Jan 1) View in topic
(Included with membership. Access now) – Search “COVID-19” to access drug monographs and patient drug information for AstraZeneca, Janssen, Moderna, and Pfizer-BioNTech.
BMJ Best Practice
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). See “Vaccines”. Updated January 14, 2022.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Literature review current through December 2021. Updated: January 21, 2022.
Center for Effective Practice - CEP Providers | COVID-19 Vaccines
Elsevier - COVID-19 Healthcare Hub: Vaccines Toolkit
* Immunize Canada - CARD™ - (C - Comfort, A - Ask, R - Relax, D - Distract)
Public Health Agency of Canada - Tool Kit for Health Care Providers
* University of British Columbia - COVID-19 Immunization Toolkit for Primary Care Offices in Canada
American Family Physician
December 27, 2021, Research Update - Vaccination Plus Booster Essential in Preventing Symptomatic Infection from Omicron Variant. Written by John Hickner, MD, MS, on December 14, 2021. (Source: Andrews N, Stowe J, Kirsebom F, et al. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern [medRxiv preprint, not peer-reviewed, December 14, 2021].)
November 3, 2021, Research Update - High Effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine against COVID-19 Hospitalizations up to Six Months after Completing Primary Series. Written by Henry C. Barry, MD, MS, on October 5, 2021. (Source: Tartof SY, Slezak JM, Fischer H, et al. Effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine up to 6 months in a large integrated health system in the USA: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2021;398(10309):1407-1416.)
November 1, 2021, Research Update - Third Pfizer Vaccine Dose Significantly Increases Protection Against Mild and Severe COVID-19. Written by Mark H. Ebell, MD, MS, on September 27, 2021. (Source: Bar-On YM, Goldberg Y, Mandel M, et al. Protection of BNT162b2 vaccine booster against Covid-19 in Israel. N Engl J Med. 2021;385:1393-1400.)
COVID-19 Evidence Alerts – weekly update of high-quality clinical studies with free email notifications
Recent selected reviews
Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of Vaccine Boosters after Ad26.COV2.S Priming. Sablerolles RSG, Rietdijk WJR, Goorhuis A, et al. N Engl J Med. Reviewed January 25, 2022.
Additional heterologous versus homologous booster vaccination in immunosuppressed patients without SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroconversion after primary mRNA vaccination: a randomised controlled trial. Bonelli M, Mrak D, Tobudic S, et al. Ann Rheum Dis. Reviewed January 19, 2022.
Immunological and clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised populations: a systematic review. Galmiche S, Luong Nguyen LB, Tartour E, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect. Reviewed January 19, 2022.
Final efficacy analysis, interim safety analysis, and immunogenicity of a single dose of recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine (adenovirus type 5 vector) in adults 18 years and older: an international, multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Halperin SA, Ye L, MacKinnon-Cameron D, et al. Lancet. Reviewed January 14, 2022.
Primer AI - COVID-19 primer
Vaccine & Therapeutics – dashboard for latest research and trending news and articles on vaccines
Veterans Affairs (VA) Evidence Synthesis Program
Strategies that Promote Equity in COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake for Undocumented Immigrants: A Review. Demeke J, McFadden SM, Dada D, et al. | J Community Health
Aim: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of intervention strategies to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake among documented and undocumented immigrants.
Effectiveness of COVID-19 Vaccines against Delta (B.1.617.2) Variant: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies. Pormohammad A, Zarei M, Ghorbani S, et al. | Vaccines
Aim: To address the knowledge gap of vaccine effectiveness (VE) towards the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant.
Global COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance: A Systematic Review of Associated Social and Behavioral Factors. Shakeel CS, Mujeeb AA, Mirza MS, et al. | Vaccines.
Aim: To examine how and why the rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy differ across countries and continents.
Lymphadenopathy Post-COVID-19 Vaccination with Increased FDG Uptake May Be Falsely Attributed to Oncological Disorders: A Systematic Review. Bshesh K, Khan W, Vattoth AL, et al. | J Med Virol
Aim: To review the evidence on events of lymphadenopathy reported post-COVID-19 vaccination and the recommendations to avoid any clinical and/or diagnostic complications.
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Breakthrough Infections in Fully Vaccinated Healthcare Personnel: A Systematic Review. Ledda C, Costantino C, Motta G, et al. | Trop Med Infect Dis
Aim: To provide evidence on mRNA reported vaccine breakthrough infections among HCP.
Vaccines to prevent COVID-19: A living systematic review with Trial Sequential Analysis and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Korang SK, von Rohden E, Veroniki AA, et al. | PLoS One
Aim: To assess the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines through analyses of all currently available randomized clinical trials.
Cases: Shoulder injury related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration. Jacky C.K. Chow, Sarah L. Koles and Aaron J. Bois. CMAJ January 17, 2022 194 (2) E46-E49; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.211162
Five Things to Know About ...: Immediate reactions after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Samira Jeimy, Tiffany Wong and Christine Song. CMAJ December 06, 2021 193 (48) E1842; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.211581
. Andrew D. McRae and Andreas Laupacis. CMAJ November 29, 2021 193 (47) E1816-E1817; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.211839
Cases: Guillain–Barré syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a patient with previous vaccine-associated Guillain–Barré syndrome. Ling Ling, Sean M. Bagshaw and Pierre-Marc Villeneuve. CMAJ November 22, 2021 193 (46) E1766-E1769; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.210947
Cases: Systemic capillary leak syndrome after ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (Oxford–AstraZeneca) vaccination. Julie Robichaud, Catherine Côté and Fanny Côté. CMAJ August 30, 2021 193 (34) E1341-E1344; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.211212
Increasing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination rates among Black people in Canada. Azza Eissa, Aisha Lofters, Nancy Akor, Cheryl Prescod and Onye Nnorom. CMAJ August 09, 2021 193 (31) E1220-E1221; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.210949
. Darren Wan-Teck Lim, Dorothy Hui Lin Ng and Jenny Guek-Hong Low. CMAJ August 03, 2021 193 (30) E1178; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.210696
See links to additional articles and article collections in our COVID-19 post
Epocrates COVID-19 Drug Therapy Trial Updates – links to trials and resources focused on therapeutics.
Government of Canada – COVID-19 Vaccination Tracker – Real-time reporting of doses administration across Canada. Updated January 28, 2022.
Government of Canada – COVID-19 vaccines and treatments portal – Information on vaccines and treatments authorized for COVID-19, as well as those currently under review. Updated January 27, 2022.
Government of Canada – Vaccines and treatments for COVID-19 – progress, clinical trials, rollout and safety. Updated December 3, 2021.
Health Canada – Approved COVID-19 Vaccines - Information on COVID-19 vaccines including authorized vaccines, types of vaccines and on-going safety monitoring. Updated January 7, 2022.
*Lexicomp – COVID-19 mRNA vaccines: Drug information.
Lexicomp – Lexi-Drugs Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine Tracker (includes links to trials).
Milken Institute – COVID-19 Treatment and Vaccine Tracker – Updated January 27, 2022.
* National Library of Medicine – ClinicalTrials.gov – COVID-19 vaccine trials
Regulatory Affairs Professional Society (US) - COVID-19 vaccine tracker
* World Health Organization - COVID-19 vaccine tracker and landscape
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Different COVID-19 Vaccines. Updated January 21, 2022.
International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities (ICMRA) - “expedite and streamline the development, authorization and availability of COVID-19 treatments and vaccines worldwide.”
World Health Organization – Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Vaccines Q&A Updated January 20, 2022.
World Health Organization - COVID-19 vaccines. No date.
*CMA Joule - CPG Infobase: Clinical Practice Guidelines on COVID-19 Vaccines. Updated January 28, 2022.
Immunize Canada - COVID-19 Information for Health Care Providers. No date.
Indigenous Services Canada – COVID-19 vaccines and Indigenous peoples. Updated January 27, 2022.
*National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Statements and publications – COVID-19. Updated January 28, 2022.
*Public Health Agency of Canada - COVID-19 vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide – Updated January 28, 2022.
Public Health Agency of Canada – Vaccines and treatments for COVID-19: Canada’s Vaccine supply. Updated January 27, 2022.
BC Centre for Disease Control – COVID-19 vaccination at a glance. No date.
Doctors of BC –-COVID-19 Vaccine Office Toolkit No date.
Government of British Columbia - COVID-19 Immunization Plan. Updated January 28, 2022.
Immunize BC - COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Updated January 24, 2022.
Government of Yukon – COVID-19 Vaccine – vaccine schedule and appointment booking, vaccine strategy and rollout schedule. No date.
Government of the Northwest Territories - COVID-19 Vaccine – includes vaccine information in multiple languages. Updated January 28, 2022.
Government of Alberta - COVID-19 vaccines and records. Updated January 27, 2022.
Alberta Health Services – COVID-19 & Influenza Immunization Booking. Updated January 26, 2022.
Government of Saskatchewan - COVID-19 Vaccine - delivery strategy, vaccine information, and information for health care workers. No date.
Province of Manitoba – COVID-19 Vaccine – includes Q &As, Information for Health Professionals, and eligibility criteria. Updated January 28, 2022.
Nunavut Department of Health - COVID-19 Vaccination – includes vaccine information, rollout and FAQs. Updated January 25, 2022.
Government of Ontario - COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario – vaccination status, safety and rollout. Updated January 30, 2022.
Ontario College of Family Physicians - COVID-19 Vaccines | Vaccinating – curated list of provincial and federal vaccine information. No date.
* Ontario COVID-19 Science Advisory Table – Dashboard - Current COVID-19 Risk in Ontario by Vaccination Status. No date.
Public Health Ontario - COVID-19 Vaccines. Updated January 28, 2022.
Government of Quebec - COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Updated December 15, 2021.
Government of New Brunswick – COVID-19 Vaccines – development, rollout and information for health professionals. Updated January 29, 2022.
Government of Nova Scotia - Coronavirus (COVID-19): vaccine – includes immunization plan, supply and distribution, and vaccine data. No date.
Nova Scotia Health - COVID-19 Vaccine – vaccine information and distribution plan. No date.
Prince Edward Island
Government of Prince Edward Island - COVID-19 Vaccines and Immunization Phased Approach – vaccination status, rollout schedule, and safety. Updated November 23, 2021.
Government of Prince Edward Island – COVID-19 Vaccine Information for Health Care Providers – Updated November 16, 2021.
Government of Prince Edward Island - Getting the COVID-19 Vaccine – January 24, 2022.
Government of Newfoundland and Labrador – COVID-19 Immunization Plan for Newfoundland and Labrador – vaccine information, administration and resources for health care professionals. No date.
Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA) – Vaccination - “As the COVID-19 vaccination rollout expands, there are a number of medical-legal considerations physicians will want to be aware of.” Updated January 10, 2022.
Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics - Coronavirus Ethics and Policy Insights and Resources. No Date.
National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy/ Institut national de santé publique (Québec) – Public Health Ethics and COVID-19: Vaccination – Selected Resources. Updated March 2021.
Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada. COVID-19 vaccine foundations webinar for health care providers
* CanVax / Public Health Agency of Canada - CANVax Presents: PHAC Webinar Series on COVID-19 Vaccines. Updated January 26, 2022.
* CanVax / Immunize Canada - Immunize Canada and CANVax Webinars.
National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases. NCCID hosts the Public Health Agency of Canada COVID-19 vaccine webinars for health care providers
EBSCO - Patient decision aid for Covid-19 Vaccination. Updated January 20, 2022.
Immunize BC - COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Updated January 24, 2022.
- COVID-19 Vaccine (Adenovirus Vector) Janssen FDA Fact Sheet (Patient Education - Disease and Procedure) Updated March 1, 2021.
- COVID-19 Vaccine (mRNA) (Patient Education - Adult Medication) (PDF) Updated December 15, 2020.
- COVID-19 Vaccine (mRNA) Pfizer FDA Fact Sheet (Patient Education - Disease and Procedure) (PDF) Updated January 6, 2021.
- COVID-19 Vaccine (mRNA) Moderna FDA Fact Sheet (Patient Education - Disease and Procedure) (PDF) Updated January 6, 2021.
MayoClinic - COVID-19 vaccines: Get the facts
Ontario Ministry of Health - Vaccine safety
* Health Agency of Canada - Vaccines for COVID-19
* UpToDate - Patient education: COVID-19 vaccines (The Basics)
Google Scholar Pfizer or Moderna vaccines search by Dean Giustini – Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—For Beginners to Experts - University of British Columbia.
Need more information or have a more focused clinical question on COVID-19 vaccines or any other clinical topic of interest? Contact the Ask a Librarian team to request a literature search.
This material is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice and should not be relied on as health or personal advice. The opinions stated by the authors are made in a personal capacity and do not necessarily reflect those of the Canadian Medical Association and its subsidiaries including Joule.